The 1928 Agreement Among Nations To Avoid War Was Called

The extension of the pact to other nations was welcomed at the international level. After the heavy losses of the First World War, the idea of declaring war illegal was very popular in international public opinion. Since the language of the pact established that only wars of aggression — not military acts of self-defense — would be covered by the pact, many nations had no objections to the signing. If the pact served to limit conflicts, everyone would benefit; If this was not the case, there were no legal consequences. In early 1928, negotiations on the agreement were extended to all original signatories. In the final version of the pact, they agreed on two clauses: the first prohibited war as an instrument of national policy and the second urged the signatories to settle their differences by peaceful means. On August 27, 1928, 15 countries signed an agreement in Paris that attempted to eliminate the war In the spring of 1927, French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand proposed a bilateral non-aggression pact with the United States. U.S. Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg took up the idea and proposed a multilateral treaty signed by all the major powers of the world. The French agreed and the Kellogg-Briand Pact was signed in 1928 and came into force on July 24, 1929. Finally, 47 other nations followed, but the agreement had little effect in halting the rise of militarism in the 1930s and early World War II.

Elements were subsequently incorporated into the Charter of the United Nations and other treaties. By that time, the following nations had deposited the instruments of ratification of the pact: the people, says Mr. Wells, insert themselves into a false sense of security by following simple paths that seemed to be moving away from the war, but in reality were doing nothing of the same. They humiliated themselves with peace demonstrations that showed nothing. Renouncing war meant nothing of any practical value, until there was an alternative solution to the settlement of disputes, and this could only happen if nations were willing to submit to excessive authority over matters that led to glasses between them. . . .

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